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  • DaVinci Medical Academy : DMA, Chennai

FMGE Important Topics 2022 | Vitamins and Minerals | Biochemistry | DMA




Vitamin A

Properties

* Fat soluble

* Retinoic acid is used in cases of acne

* Isotretinoin is a teratogenic form


Deficiency

* Night blindness, bitot spots; dry skin and hair


Toxicity

* Increased intracranial pressure and joint pains


 

Vitamin D

Properties

* Fat-soluble

* D is consumed in milk

* D is formed under the skin by UV stimulation

* The active form is 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol

* It increases calcium and phosphate absorption from the intestine

Deficiency

* Fatigue, muscle and bone weakness, and fractures

Toxicity

* hypercalcemia manifested by altered mental status, polyuria, and

constipation; common in hyperparathyroidism and sarcoidosis


 

Vitamin E

Properties

* Fat-soluble

* Antioxidant function: protects RBCs from

hemolysis

Deficiency

* Fragile RBCs and higher risk of hemolysis


 

Vitamin K

Properties

* Fat-soluble

* Synthesized by intestinal flora

* It forms gamma-carboxyglutamate, upon which some clotting factors depend for activation, namely factors II, VII, IX, and X, and proteins C and S

Deficiency

Causes

1. Vitamin K antagonists, e.g., warfarin

2. Destruction of intestinal flora by long-term use of antibiotics

* Coagulopathy with high bleeding tendency

* Patients have high prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)


 

Question

Metabolic bone disease is caused by excess intake of which vitamin:

A. A

B. B

C. C

D. D

Vitamin A intoxication causes injury to:

Vitamin A is stored mainly as retinol esters in:

Vitamin which is excreted in urine is:

Active form of vitamin D is:

Vitamin required for post translational modification of coagulants is:

HDN is seen due to deficiency of vitamin:

Vitamin K is required for:




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